Einstein's equations predict : OUTPUT can be without INPUT
Science links +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Adventure in Science : Popular science DRAMA ( e-book)
on GENERALIZATION of
2265 year old Archimedes , 327 years old Newton & 107 years old Einstein
in Question and Answer
74,536 Published by WSIC EBooks Ltd., 21 Feb.2012, Canada
magzine The Sunday Indian
Ajay Sharma has been invited to over 84 International conferences for
presentation of research on Generalization of Einstein's E=mc2
Ajay Sharma has personally presented papers in conferences in USA and ENGLAND
5th international symposium on high energy Gamma Ray Astronomy, Heidelberg
Germany July 9-13, 2012 22nd International Conference of applications in
accelerators in Reserach and Industry , August 5-10.Texas , Forth Worth
4th International Meeting on Gravitation and Cosmology, Guadalaraja, Jailisico
Mexico 21-25 May 2012
Conference on Cold Fusion which will be held in Daejeon,
South Korea in August 12-17, 2012.
ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition
Nov , USA
21st Midwest Relativity ,Nov.Meeting,
University of Illinois USA, November, 4-5, 2011
10th international Conference on gravitation, Astrophysics and Cosmology, Univ.
of Quy Nhon, December 17-22 , 20115th International Conference of IMBIC on
"Mathematical Sciences for Advancement of Science and Technology" (MSAST 2010)
Kolkata , Dec. 18-20, 2011
Galileo-Xu Guangqi Meeting,Beijing China 15-11 October 2011
27th Pacific Coast Gravity Meeting ,California Institute of Technology,USA 18-22
Nuclear and Particle Physics Divisional Conference, Organised by
Institute of Physics, England 4 - 7 April 2011, University of
International Conference in Theoretical Physics, Moscow State Open University,
Moscow20 June - 24 June2011
8th Russbach Workshop on Nuclear Astrophysics, Russ Bach am Pass
Gschutt Dachstein West, Austria
March 13-19, 2011
98th Indian Science Congress, SRM University Chennai, INDIA, 3-7Jan.
4th International Conference of IMBIC on "Mathematical Sciences for Advancement
of Science and Technology" (MSAST 2010) Kolkata , Dec. 19-21, 2010
Why Water Barometer is not constructed by scientists since 1644 ?
Prediction : The height ofwater column must be 10.3 m , as
that of mercury column is 76cm.
link for complete paper
(i) According to 2265 years old Archimedes principle, when a body is
immersed in fluid (water) , it experiences upthrust equal to
weight of fluid displaced.
‘Upthrust is equal to
weight of fluid displaced.’ Upthrust = VDmg
(ii) The body floats if weight ( VDbg
) =Upthrust (VDmg)
or Density of body = Density of medium
according to Archimedes Principle, for a floating body
(a) SHAPE OF FLOATINGBODY
(b) VISCOSITY OF MEDIUM , SURFACE TENSION etc.
This aspect is not experimentally tested at all. However
Archimedesprinciple is regarded as true in
all cases which is unscientific.
(iii) The principle was stated about 250BC and mathematical equations became
feasible in 1685 i.e
after 1935 years.
How equation are regarded as granted for 1935 years without experiments and
It is the biggest question or mystery.
FLOATING BALLOON EXPERIMENTS IN WATER
Let mathematically the principle predicts that a BALLOON of certain volume must
support 100 gm mass
( must float carrying mass 100 gm ).
But in first stage observations
‘UMBRELLA SHAPED’ balloon supported mass105gm
‘thinpipe shaped balloon’ supported mass 96
CONCLUSION : The mass (weight in general sense) which balloon supported depends
upon SHAPEof BODY.
Thus it can be explained by Generalized Form of Principle
‘Upthrust is proportional to weight of fluid displaced.’
Upthrust = f
where f is co-efficient of proportionality . It depends upon SHAPE
of BODY and VISCOSITY of medium. In 1991 , Associate Editor
Nature, Dr David Lindley suggested the UTMOST SENSITIVE VERSION OF EXPERIMENTS.
The papers on the topic are published from USA and England.
Even now scientists are not conducting experiments taking bodies of different
SHAPES andliquids of different
2265 years old predicts VOLUME becomes UNDEFINED (V=0/0) Consider a completely
submerged floating balloon in water. m= (V+v) Dw -VDm
m : mass which balloon supports , V Volume of medium filled in balloon, v volume
of sheath , Dm density of medium
inside balloon and Dw density of water.
V = (m-vDw)/(Dw-Dm)(1)
When density of medium ( Dm ) = Density of water (Dw).
Then From eq.(1)
V = (vDw -vDw)/(Dw-Dw) = 0/0
which is meaningless prediction from 2265 years old Archimedes principle.
Generalized form of Archimedes
principle is used.
m= f(V+v) Dw -VDm
V = (m-fvDw)/(fDw-Dm) Now INDETERMINATE FORM of volume is NOT obtained.
Now equation for volume becomes,
V = (m-fvDw)/(fDw-Dm) = (f-1)Dw V
which is correct result.
Hence generalized form of 2265 years old Archimedes principle is
Some experiments can be conducted to confirm it.
Details in bookEinstein and
Purely Arbitrary Derivation
by Einstein of
did not derive ∆E
SPECULATED it without any mathematical derivation. Actually
Einstein derived Light
Energy Mass Energy Equation as ∆L=∆mc2. Thus Einstein
simply replaced L by E to get ∆E
derivation of ∆E
ARBITRARY and ILLOGICAL. ∆E
=∆mc2 (∆L=∆mc2) is
not derivable in all cases.
NOT always derivable . Frequently, instead of∆L=∆mc2 ,
the result is
before emission) = Ma(Mass
after emission) NOT ∆L=∆mc2
in some feasible conditions,
the derivation is NOT APPLICABLE at all. Einstein’s
derivation is under special conditions only
Arbitrary choice of values of parameters by Einstein in derivation.
(a) Einstein has considered two Light Waves but MANY WAVES are possible. Why
many waves are neglected by Einstein?
(b) Einstein has considered the energies of TWO waves of EQUAL ENERGY
Why other magnitudes of energy i.e. 0.3L and 0.7L etc.
(c)Einstein has considered two waves in opposite directions i.e.ɸ
= 0 and ɸ =180
angles ɸ= 0.9999 and
ɸ=180 were not considered?
(d) Einstein has considered velocity in classical region (v<<c)
Why velocity in relativistic region was neglected?
In brief Einstein’s derivation as given in Sep 1905 paper is INCOMPLETE and is
under SUPER SPECIAL CONDITIONS and alternate derivation is required for such
Generalized form of Mass Energy Equation ∆E =A c2∆m The equation
∆E =A c2∆mis derived by
new and simple method. Here A is co-efficient of proportionality, its nature is
like other coefficients of proportionality in the existing physics.
∆E =A c2∆m
∆E > ∆mc2 if A<1,
∆E =A c2∆m
is general equation and ∆E
is SPECIAL CASE.
Neither Einstein nor any other scientist tried to confirm ∆E =∆mc2in case of CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
(i) In chemical reactions (burning of wood)are the most
abundant reactions in world. The experiments regarding Large Hadron Collider
would cost more than 8 Billion Euro, then why such experiments are not
is not able to explain simultaneously the ‘universal equality of masses of
nuclei’and Binding Energy of Deuteron.
∆E =A c2∆m
can do so (requires
Earliest-earliest origin of
universe or what was before Big Bang ?
The mass of universe is regarded as equal to 1055
kg. It would have come from energy, E
m2/s2 = 9x1071
But from where energy 9x1071
J is created ?So one question gives rise to another
question.This question is answered by
∆E =A c2∆m
” creation of mass of universe and origin of gravitation are both
Like other energies (heat, light, binding energy) the gravitation is other form
of mass. As the mass is created, fraction of mass so created is
converted to gravitational energy.
Some publications ( for complete list see below) Ajay Sharma's
papers ( 2004-11) generalizing E=mc2 to
Ajay Sharma American Journal of Scientific Research, 12
Ajay Sharma, Proceedings of NPA, conference atUniversity of
Connecticut, USA, Part II, pp.261-263, 2010